Hajj & 'Umrah (Umrah at-tamattu & Hajj at-tamattu)
According to Imam ALI Foundation London, Official Representatives of
Grand Ayatullah Sayyid Ali al-Husayni as-Sistani
Please note: we assume that all Hajj conditions are fulfilled such us Freedom and Financial Ability, Adulthood ...etc. Therefore we will not go though them in this clarification.
The pilgrimage (hajj) is of three types: tamattu‘, ifrad, and qiran. The latter two pilgrimages are mandatory upon the people of Mecca and those whose houses are within the 88 kilometers perimeter of the boundary of Mecca.However, the hajj at-tamattu‘ is mandatory upon those live beyond the 88 kilometers of the boundary of Mecca, and they also have to do the ‘umrah at-tamattu‘ before doing the hajj. It is this hajj at-tamattu‘ which is relevant to the majority of the Muslims and, therefore, my discussion is confined to it.
Hajj Agencies usualy make the first destination to Madinah then to Macca to avoid any trouble that may face pilgrims after performing Hajj such as illness, tiredness..etc. Therefore that will be considered in this clarification.
Five things are mandatory in ‘umrah at-tamattu‘:
1. donning the ihram (pilgrim’s garment) at one of the well-known miqãt (the designated perimeter around the city of Mecca);
2. tawãf (circumambulation around the Ka‘bah);
3. salãtu ’t-tawãf;
4. as-sa‘i (going between the hills of Safa and Marwah);
5. taqsir (cutting a bit of your hair or clipping the nail).
Once the pilgrim has done these five rituals, he can take off the ihrãm and the things that had become forbidden upon him after donning on the ihram will again become permissible. With this ends the first part of hajj at-tamattu‘. Thereafter, when the 9th of Dhul Hijja comes near, the pilgrim then prepares himself for the second part of hajj at-tamattu‘, and with it he completes his pilgrimage and becomes purified just as his mother borne him purified. And so I shall begin by explaining the method of performing the ‘umrah and its steps beginning with the ihram.
once pilgrim arrived to Medinah the started to do ziarat to the Holy Prophet (s.a.a.w.w), Ahlulbait (a.s) in Cemetery of Baqea ...etc. after that he starts to go to Mecca therfore he must go to one of the Miqat "Masjid Al-Shajarah" and prepare himselef to be in state of Ihraam to enter the Holly city of Mecca. (there are some exception that could be founn in the code of practice).
To avoid crowdedness in "Masjid Al-Shajarah", pilgrim can perform Ghusl Al-Ihraam "recommended" and put on the two pieces of ihram garment in Medinah, so in the Miqat "Masjid Al-Shajarah" he can pray and may renew the ghusl and start the Ihraam. The obligatory stages of putting on the ihram are three: The intention, put on the two pieces of ihram garment and Saying the talbiyyah at the time of niyyat.
1. The intention: it is sufficient to have the sincere intention of seeking nearness of God in one’s mind without the need to say it verbally. However, if he wants to say, then he may say it in the following way: “I am putting on the ihram for ‘umrah at-tamattu‘ of hajj at-tamattu‘ for seeking nearness of Almighty Allah.”
2. For Men: To put on the two pieces of ihram garment which consists of an extra large size towel tied from the waist going downwards and another placed over the shoulders. It is obligatory precaution for men to put it on before the niyyat and the talbiyyah. As far as the women are concerned, they may put by the ihram by using on their own normal clothings.
3. Saying the talbiyyah at the time of niyyat. It will be sufficient to say: “Lab-bay-ka Allahumma lab-bay-ka; lab-bay-ka la sharika laka lab-bay-ka; innal hamda wan ni‘mata laka wal mulk; la sharika laka lab-bay-ka.” The pilgrim must say the talbiyya in the proper Arabic pronunciation even if he needs to learn or follow someone in repeating those words correctly.
It is recommended to add the following to the talbiyya: “Lab-bay-ka dha ’l-ma‘arij lab-bay-ka; lab-bay-ka da‘iyan ila dari ’s-salam lab-bay-ka; lab-bay-ka ghaffara ’dh-dhunubi lab-bay-ka; lab-bay-ka ahla ’t-talbiyya; lab-bay-ka tubdiyu wa ’l-ma‘ad ilayka lab-bay-ka; lab-bay-ka tastaghni wa yaftaqiru ilayka lab-bay-ka; lab-bay-ka marhuban wa marghuban ilayka lab-bay-ka; lab-bay-ka ilaha ’l-haqq lab-bay-ka; lab-bay-ka dha ’n-na‘ma’i wa ’l-fadli ’l-hasani ’l-jamil lab-bay-ka; lab-bay-ka kashshafa ’l-kurubi ’l-‘idham lab-bay-ka; lab-bay-ka ‘abduka wabnu ‘abdayka lab-bay-ka; lab-bay-ka ya karim.”
It is further recommended to add the following to the talbiyya: “lab-bay-ka ataqarrabu ilayka bi Muhammadin wa Al-I Muhammadin lab-bay-ka; lab-bay-ka bi hajjatin aw ‘umrah lab-bay-ka; lab-bay-ka wa hadhihi ‘umratu mut‘atu ila ’l-hajji lab-bay-ka; lab-bay-ka ahla ’t-talbiyya lab-bay-ka; lab-bay-ka talbiyya tamamuha wa balaghuha ‘alayka.”
It is recommended to repeat the talbiyya as much as possible, especially after every obligatory prayer, while getting on the vehicle or getting out of it, while ascending or descending (in the plane), and at time of dawn.
It is recommended for the men, and not the women, to say the talbiyya loud.
This recommendation continues until the pilgrims see the houses of the old Mecca at which time the tabliyya should be stopped as precaution.
Rules of Ihram
1. The ihram (for ‘umrah tamattu‘ or hajj tamattu‘ or ‘umrah mufrada) is not valid unless the talbiyya is said together with the niyyat.
2. The obligatory part of talbiyya is to say “lab-bay-ka Allahumma lab-bay-ka; lab-bay-ka la sharika laka lab-bay-ka” once. Of course, it is recommended to say that many times as mentioned above.
3. The validity of ihram does not depend on the ritual purity (taharat) of the individual from the major or minor impurities. So putting on the ihram and saying the talbiyya is valid even if it is done in the state of minor or major impurity like janabat or monthly cycle, etc.
4. The ghusl done for the ihram at daytime is sufficient till end of the following night; similarly, a ghusl done at nighttime is sufficient till end of the following day. The ghusl for ihram is valid even for a lady who is in her monthly cycle or going through post-natal bleeding, and it is among the major ablutions after which there is not requirement for wudhu for prayers until one does something that invalidates the wudhu. Similarly, the ghusl for ihram will suffice if a person was required to do the ghusl for janabat or hayd. If something that invalidates the wudhu occurs between the ghusl for ihram and the actual putting on the ihram, then it is recommended to redo the ghusl. Similarly, it is recommended to repeat the ghusl if someone eats or wears something that is haram.
5. A person who puts on the ihram at Masjidu ’sh-Shajarah is allowed to return back to Medina to take a flight to Jeddah and then travel to Mecca. However, in this case, he should refrain from traveling under a cover which is haram – he can refrain from this prohibition by flying at night when it is not raining.
6. For a pilgrim who wants to do hajj from Medina’s route, it is necessary, based on obligatory precaution, to put on the ihram at its famous mosque known as Masjidu ’sh-Shajarah itself. It would not be sufficient to put on the ihram outside the mosque except for a lady who is in her monthly cycle or in her postnatal (nifas) days—she will put on the ihram outside the mosque. For those putting on the ihram inside the mosque, any part of the mosque, including the new extended areas, will be sufficient.
7. The person who has already done the obligatory pilgrimage once and now plans to do another pilgrimage, and wishes that his second pilgrimage be considered either as his obligatory pilgrimage (if the first was not done properly) or as his recommended pilgrimage (if the first was done properly) – what would be his niyyat, intention? His niyyat should be “to do the duty which is required of him/her now” even though he/she does not know whether it is obligatory (wajib) or recommended (mustahab).
8. All the conditions applicable for the dress for salat are also applicable for ihram such as purity, etc. However, if the ihram becomes impure by an impurity which is excused in salat, then it must be changed or purified. Of course, delay in changing or purifying such an ihram because of unavoidable circumstances is okay.
9. It is not necessary for the pilgrim to use the same ihram continuously during the pilgrimage. It is permissible for him to take it off for a need or to replace it with another ihram. He is also allowed to add extra pieces over the two ihram pieces to protect himself against cold, etc.
Things forbidden in Ihram
There are twenty-five things which are forbidden in the state of ihram. These are:
1. Hunting the land animal.
2. Sexual intercourse.
3. Kissing the woman.
4. Touching the woman.
5. Looking at the woman and indulging in fore-play.
8. Using perfume.
9. For men only: wearing the sewn clothes.
10. Applying kohl on the eyes.
11. Looking in a mirror.
12. For men only: wearing shoes or socks.
13. Cursing other people.
14. Quarreling with others.
15. Killing the insects on one’s body.
16. Using cosmetics.
17. Applying oil on the body.
18. Getting rid of the bodily hair.
19. For men only: covering the head. (Even submerging the head in a body of water is not allowed, for both men as well as women.)
20. For women: covering the face.
21. For men: shading themselves from sun or rain.
22. Causing blood to come out of one’s body.
23. Clipping the nail.
24. Pulling out the teeth.
25. Carrying arms.
The first problem will face a male pilgrim is to travel in a covered vehicle, therefore is allowed to travel in a covered vehicle at nighttime when it is not raining or during the day when it is cloudy. Based on what has been mentioned above, a male pilgrim in the ihram is not allowed to travel in a covered vehicle when it is raining. If it starts raining while he is traveling at night, then he should ask the driver to stop the vehicle until the rain stops. (He does not need to get out of the vehicle.) But if the driver of the rental car or bus does not accede to the pilgrim’s request, then there is no penalty on the pilgrim.
When the pilgrim reaches to Mecca and intends to fulfill the second obligation, he goes to the Sacred Mosque for circumambulating around the Holy Ka‘bah seven times starting from and ending at the Black Stone.
Conditions of the Tawaf
The following conditions are to be observed in doing the tawat:
1. The Niyyat: the pilgrim should intend to do the tawaf with total sincerity for the sake of Allah by saying, for example, “I am doing tawaf around the House of Allah seven rounds for the ‘umrah at-tamattu‘ of hajj of Islam to seek pleasure of Allah.” It is not necessary to do the niyyat in so many words, just the intention in the mind is sufficient.
2. Purity: It is necessary for the pilgrim to be ritually pure, i.e., free from the minor and minor defilements. (The major defilement is caused, for example, by sexual intercourse and monthly cycle that require a major ablution; and the minor defilement is caused, for example, by urinating and emptying the bowels that require a minor ablution.) It is appropriate for me to emphasize here that the pilgrim must ensure the correctness of his major ablution (ghusl), his minor ablution (wudhu), and his ritual prayer (salat). He has to ensure this before doing his pilgrimage, and this can be done by getting your method of ghusl, wudhu and salat verified by someone who is trustworthy and learned in this matter. In every hajj caravan, there is someone who can fulfill this role besides the religious scholars, preachers, guides and volunteers who always seek for the opportunity to serve the guests of the Merciful God in the best manner possible.
3. The dress and the body of the pilgrim must be ritually pure.
4. & 5. The male pilgrim must be circumcised, and private parts must be covered during the tawaf.
Obligations of Tawaf
There are eight things obligatory in tawaf:
1. & 2. Each of the seven rounds must begin from the Black Stone and end at the Black Stone. In order to ensure that his tawaf was done properly, he should start the first round a little before the Black Stone and do the niyyat right when he reaches the Stone on his left side. Then he should continue the circumambulation of the Ka‘bah seven times until he passes the Black Stone at the end of the seventh time. This is how he can ensure that he began and ended his tawaf at the Black Stone.
3. Keep the Ka‘bah to his left during the entire tawaf. There is no need to be exactly precise about this since the Prophet (s.a.w.) did the tawaf while he was riding on a camel.
4. Do the tawaf outside the Hijr Isma‘il wall and not go through the passage between the Hijr and the Ka‘bah.
5. Do the tawaf around the Ka‘bah without touching its ledge which is known as Shadhranu ’l-Ka‘bah.
6. Do the tawaf around the Ka‘bah seven times as mentioned earlier.
7. The seven rounds of the tawaf should be continuous without any significant gap between its rounds with the exception of the cases mentioned in the detailed manual of pilgrimage.
8. The movement of the pilgrim around the Ka‘bah should be by his own will and intention even when the crowd is intense. A pilgrim’s ability to move away from the tawaf
Once the pilgrim has done the tawaf, he should go towards the Maqam Ibrahim (a.s.) to do the salat of tawaf without any considerable gap between the two rituals – based on obligatory precaution. However, a ten minutes gap for resting in between the tawaf and the salat of tawaf or for finding the proper place for salat would not harm the validity of the tawaf or the salat of tawaf.
Method od Salat of Tawaf
Salat of tawaf is two rak‘ats like the Dawn Prayer.
The pilgrim has to do the niyyat of sincerity by saying, for example, “I am doing the salat of tawaf of ‘umrah at-tamattu‘ of hajj at-tamattu‘ to seek the pleasure of Almighty Allah.” It is not necessary that the niyyat be said in some many words, the intention in the mind is sufficient. One has the option of reciting the surahs loudly or silently in salat of tawaf.
It is necessary to do the salat of tawaf near the Maqam Ibrahim (a.s.) and behind it. If this is not possible, then there could be two situations:
1. If it is possible for the pilgrim to do the salat close to the Maqam on one of the two sides of it – then he should do the salat of tawaf two times: once on the side of Maqam and then behind it, even if one has go far behind it.
2. If it is not possible to do the salat near the Maqam by its two sides, then he may do it anywhere behind the Maqam. Based on precaution, it is better to find a place as close as possible of the Maqam.
By saying “if it is not possible to do the salat near the Maqam,” I mean that the pilgrim is unable to do the salat near the Maqam because of the crowd of pilgrims and worshippers in such a way that even if prays there he would not be able to do so peacefully. This applies only for the salat of wajib tawaf; but for sunnat tawaf, one can say the salat in any part of the Sacred Mosque.
Sa‘i is the fourth of obligatory rituals of ‘umrah at-tamattu‘. After completing the salat of tawaf, it is recommended for the pilgrim to drink from Zamzam water before going towards the Safa hill for the sa‘i. It is also recommended for him to go calmly towards Safa from the door which is opposite the Black Stone. And when he ascend on the hill of Safa, he should look towards the Ka‘bah, especially towards the corner of the Black Stone and then thank Allah, praise Him, remember His blessings and then descend from Safa to begin the sa‘i. It is recommended for the pilgrim to do the walk calmly for the sa‘i until he reaches the first pillar (which is identified by a special light). From the first pillar to the next one, it is recommended for the men to walk briskly; however, this recommended is not for women.
Rules of Sa‘i
1. Niyyat (sincere intention) is an essential condition for sa‘i which can be said, for example, in the following words: “I am doing sa‘i between Safa and Marwah seven rounds for the ‘umrah at-tamattu‘ of the hajj at-tamattu‘ for seeking pleasure of Almighty Allah.” As mentioned earlier, the niyyat does not have to be uttered in some many words, just the thought in one’s mind is sufficient.
2. The ritual ablution (wudhu) is not a condition for the validity of sa‘i even if there is an impurity (like blood) on his blood or dress. Of course, it is better to be with purity.
3. Sa‘i also have seven rounds like the tawaf. The first round of the sa‘i begins from the Safa hill and end at the Marwah hill; and the second round starts from the Marwah and ends with Safa. Finally, the seventh round ends at Marwah.
4. It is important to cover the entire area between the hills of Safa and Marwah; however, it is not necessary to go over the hills even though it is better to do so.
5. While walking towards Marwah, it is necessary to keep the body facing towards Marwah just as it is necessary to face towards Safa while returning to it from Marwah. Of course, turning one’s face to the right or the left or the back does not harm the sa‘i.
6. Based on obligatory precaution, one should not leave a considerable time gap between the rounds of sa‘i. For example, a ten minute gap between two rounds would violate the condition of continuity for the sa‘i. Of course, there is no harm in sitting on Safa or Marwah to rest between the rounds of sa‘i. Similarly, there is no harm in interrupting the sa‘i at the time of prayer for saying the prayer and then returning back to the same place to continue the sa‘i.
7. It is permissible to delay the sa‘i (after completion of the tawaf and its salat) for hours or even for a night in order to recuperate from tiredness or the heat of the season, etc. It is, obviously, better to do the sa‘i soon after the tawaf and its salat. It is however not permissible to delay the sa‘i to the next day without an excuse.
8. If the pilgrim has a doubt about the number of rounds in sa‘i, he is allowed to continue his sa‘i with the doubt. If his doubt is resolved that he has not added to or missed the rounds, then his sa‘i is valid. However, if he is unable to resolve his doubt before concluding the sa‘i, then his sa‘i is invalid and he has to repeat it all over again.
9. A doubt about the number of rounds entertained after completion of the sa‘i is to be ignored. For example, if has doubt after doing the other rituals like taqsir and tawafun nisa’, then he should ignore his doubt.
10. You are not allowed to do sa‘i on the second level of the mas‘a (the area of doing sa‘i) since it amounts to doing the sa‘i “above” the hills and not “between” the hills.
The fifth and the final of the obligatory rituals of ‘umrah at-tamattu‘ is taqsir. Once a person has completed the sa‘i, he can do the taqsir.
Rules of Tqsir
1. The niyyat (sincere intention) to please Almighty Allah. This may be done by saying: “I am doing the taqsir for ‘umrah at-tamattu‘ for seeking the pleasure of Almighty Allah.” It does not have to be said in some many words; just the intention in the mind is sufficient.
2. Taqsir involves cutting a little bit of the hair from the head or the beard or the moustache.
3. Neither is it necessary to do the taqsir immediately after the sa‘i nor has it to be done in mas‘a (the place of sa‘i). One can do the taqsir any where he likes, in the mas‘a or at the hotel, etc.
4. Once the taqsir has been done, then all the restriction placed on the pilgrim by donning the ihram of ‘umarh will be lifted.
5. There is no tawafun nisa’ in ‘umrah at-tamattu‘; that is only part of the hajj at-tamattu‘ and ‘umrah mufradah.
Please not that the pilgrim can perform taqsir for himself. The pilgrim must perform taqsir for himself first then he can do it for others.
By doing that, Umrah is completed and the pilgrim waits for performing Hajj.
Obligations of Hajj
There are twenty-three obligatory acts of the hajj or hajj at-tamattu‘. The main obligatory acts are as following:
1. Ihram from Mecca.
2. Staying at ‘Arafat.
3. Staying at Muzdalifa.
4. Stoning the ‘Aqabah pillar in Mina.
5. Sacrifice in Mina.
6. Shaving the hair or taqsir in Mina.
8. Salat of Tawaf.
10. Tawafun Nisa’.
11. Salat of Tawafun Nisa’.
12. Spending the night at Mina.
13. Stoning the pillars in Mina.
Ihram of Hajj
The ihram for hajj is donned in Mecca and the best time for it is the Day of Tarwiyya (i.e., the 8th of Dhul Hijja) at mid-day prayer’s time. If someone wants to put on this ihram before the 8th of Dhul Hijja, he may do so. And the best place for putting on the ihram is the Sacred Mosque, preferable near the Hijr Isma‘il (a.s.) and Maqam Ibrahim (a.s.). After putting on the ihram, the pilgrim has to do the niyyat, with the sincere intention of seeking the pleasure of Almighty Allah. He may do the niyyat by saying, “I am putting on the ihram for hajj at-tamattu‘ to seek the nearness of Almighty Allah.” As mentioned above, there is not need to say the niyyat in so many words; just the thought in mind is sufficient.
The pilgrim then has to say the talbiyya soon after the niyyat by saying: “Lab-bay-ka Allahumma lab-bay-ka; lab-bay-ka la sharika laka lab-bay-ka.” It is recommended to add the following to it: “Innal hamda wan ni‘mata laka wal mulk; la sharika laka lab-bay-ka.” Then the pilgrim leaves the Mecca to go to Mina (through the tunnel route that consist of 7 k.m. or through the land route which consist of 4 k.m.) with calm and dignity, reciting the talbiyya loudly and constantly reciting the zikr of Almighty Allah. It is recommended that he stay the eve of 9th Dhul Hijja at Mina and spend the time in worshipping Allah. It is preferable that his prayers be done in Masjid al-Khif (in Mina), especially at the distance of 20 cubits from the minarets which are at the centre of the mosque since that is the actual place where our Prophet and the other past prophets prayed.
The pilgrim should do his Dawn Prayer and then, after the sunrise, he should proceed towards ‘Arafat, reciting the talbiyya all the way until he reaches it. It is important to mention that going to Mina and spending the eve of 9th Dhul Hijja over there is among the recommended good deeds for which the pilgrim will be rewarded – but it is not among the obligatory acts of the hajj.
Common mistakes in Ihram for Hajj
1. It is permissible to put on the ihram in any part of Mecca including the newly developed neighbourhoods except what falls outside the boundary of haram (the sacred territory) from the Masjid at-Tan‘im. Of course, it is a better precaution to put on the ihram in the old sectors of Mecca of the Prophet’s days. Some pilgrims think that putting on the ihram in the old sectors of Mecca is mandatory and, therefore, they put themselves in undue inconvenience by leaving their residents (for example, from the ‘Aziziyya quarter) and going to the old quarters of the city for putting on the ihram. They also put themselves in religious problems, for example, by traveling in a covered vehicle during the daytime in the state of ihram which is forbidden for them as mentioned earlier.
2. Some people put on the ihram for hajj at-tamattu‘ on the morning of the Day of ‘Arafah (9th of Dhul Hijja) from Sacred Mosque since the crowd is less about the Ka‘bah – they do so considering it a good opportunity to do a sunnat tawaf after putting on the ihram. This is, however, incorrect on basis of precaution. He may do the tawaf first and then put on the ihram for hajj. However, if he made a mistake and did the tawaf after the ihram, then based on recommended precaution, he should renew his talbiyya.
3. Some pilgrims forget to say the talbiyya when they do the niyyat for the ihram, and they don’t remember it until they reach ‘Arafat and then they say the talbiyya. This is incorrect since it is obligatory upon him, if possible, to return to Mecca and redo his ihram. And if he cannot return back to Mecca for this, then he can redo his ihram in ‘Arafat itself.
Staying in Arafat
If a pilgrim cannot go on the eve of 8th Dhul Hijja to Mina but it is possible for him to stay that night at ‘Arafat or if he decided to stay that night in Mecca, then it is better for him to spend the night in remembrance of Allah (doing tashbih, rukū‘, sujūd and istaghfar) till the 9th of Dhul Hijja, the day when all pilgrims will gather in the plains of ‘Arafat (21 k.m. from Mecca). The jurists’ expression “staying in ‘Arafat” means “the presence” of the pilgrims in ‘Arafat no matter whether they are riding, walking, standing, sitting, lying down or moving around. It is obligatory to stay in ‘Arafat from the zuhr time till the maghrib time with the sincerity of intention by saying, for example, “I am staying in ‘Arafat from the zuhr time of this day to the sunset for hajj at-tamattu‘ to seek the pleasure of Almighty Allah.” Therefore, it is forbidden to leave the plains of ‘Arafat before the sunset for those who know the ruling and are not in any constrains. Based on obligatory precaution, it is necessary to stay till the disappearance of the twilight on the eastern horizon in order to ensure that the sun has fully set.
Staying in Muzdalifa
After the stay in ‘Arafat, the pilgrim has to embark on the third of the obligatory rituals of hajj and that is the stay at Muzdalifa. “Muzdalifa” is name of a place which is also known as “al-Mash‘ar al-Haram” and it is 6 k.m. from ‘Arafat and 14 k.m. from Mecca. The pilgrim has to spend a part of the eve of ‘Idd at Muzdalifa until the dawn break. However, it is better for him to stay till the sunrise even though he is permitted to move to Wadi Mahsar a little before the sunrise – but he must not leave the Wadi before the sunrise. One’s stay in Muzdalifa must be done with a sincere intention (niyyat) of seeking the pleasure of Almighty Allah. This may be done by saying, for example, “I will spend this night in al-Mash‘ar al-Haram for hajj at-tamattu‘ to seek nearness to Almighty Allah.” As mentioned earlier, the niyyat does not have to be uttered in some many words; a simple intention in one’s mind is sufficient.
Rules of staying in Muzdalifa
1. The expression “staying in Muzdalifa” means “the presence” of the pilgrims in Mazdalifa no matter whether they are riding, walking, standing, sitting, lying down or moving around.
2. Certain people are exempted from the “stay” in Muzdalifa (as defined in no. 1 above). These are: the children, the women, the weak, and the elderly who cannot stay that long or bear the crowd, the sick, and also those who take care of them. It is permissible for these people to stay in Muzdalifa only for a part of the night and then move on to Mina.
3. If a pilgrim is unable to stay in Muzdalifa for the entire eve of ‘Idd, not even between the dawn break and the sunrise of the next day because of illness or forgetfulness or ignorance, etc., then it is obligatory on him to say at least for some time between the sunrise and the mid-day of the day of ‘Idd. If he intentionally abandons that, then his hajj is invalid.
4. It is recommended for the pilgrim to pick seventy pebbles from Muzdalifa for use in stoning the pillars on the day of ‘Idd and after that.
5. It is recommended to combine the maghrib and ‘isha salats in Muzdalifa with one adhan and two iqamahs.
6. It is recommended to keep night vigil for ritual prayers, prescribed du‘as, etc.
Mina and its obligations
After completing his stay in Muzdalifa, the pilgrim moves to Mina (which is 6 k.m. from Muzdalifa) for doing the obligatory rituals of that day. These obligations are three: stoning the ‘Uqbah Pillar, then sacrificing the animal, and then shaving of the head or taqsir. This is the fourth obligatory ritual of hajj after the ihram, the stay in ‘Arafat and Muzdalifa.
Rules of stoning the‘Uqbah
1. The stoning must be done with the sincere intention of pleasing Almighty Allah by saying, for example, the following: “I am stoning the ‘Uqbah Pillar for the hajj at-tamattu‘ to seek the pleasure of Almighty Allah.” As mentioned earlier, just the thought in one’s mind is sufficient; it is not necessary to do the niyyat in verbal form.
2. The stoning should be done by seven pebbles. Based on compulsory precaution, the pebbles should be fresh ones; i.e., not the ones used by others. And it is recommended that the pebbles be coloured and with dots on it, and a fingertip in thickness.
3. It is necessary that the pebbles be from the holy territory of Mecca but not from the Sacred Mosque, Masjid al-Khif and other mosques. It is preferable they be from Muzdalifa.
4. The stoning of seven pebbles should be done one after another; that is, without any considerable time gap between throwing one stone and then the other.
5. It is important that the pebble hits the pillar. So if the pebble didn’t reach or hit the pillar, then it should not be counted as one of the seven required stones.
6. The pebble should hit the pillar by the pilgrim’s throw and not by being placed on it.
7. The stoning should be done between the sunrise and the sunset of the day of ‘Idd. So if the pilgrim knowingly neglects this time frame, then his hajj is invalid.
8. While stoning the ‘Uqbah Pillar, it is recommended that the pilgrim face the pillar with his back towards the qiblah.
9. Those who were permitted to leave Muzdalifa at night (like women and elderly) can stone the ‘Uqbah Pillar in the eve of ‘Idd – however, this flexibility for stoning does not extend to those who are their care-takers.
10. If the pilgrim doubts whether or not his pebble hit the pillar, then he should assume that he missed the target – except if the doubt came after doing the sacrifice or shaving the head or at night time, in these cases he should just ignore his doubt.
11. Based on obligatory precaution, the pilgrim should stone the original part of the pillar and not its extended part. The original part of the pillar was slightly higher than a person’s height. Therefore, based on obligatory precaution, the pilgrim should not stone the pillar from the second level.
12. Based on obligatory precaution, the pilgrim should not stone the ‘Uqbah Pillar from its back side which previously had wall and was later on removed. (The back side of the ‘Uqbah Pillar is identifiable by the ruins of its foundation.) The pilgrim should stone the ‘Uqbah Pillar from its front with the qiblah to his back.
13. If one fears considerable harm in doing the stoning by himself in its required time, then he is allowed to appoint someone else to do the stoning on his behalf. However, just the fear of hardship would not justify appointing someone else for that task. One is the best judge for himself.
14. If a mistake happens in stoning the ‘Uqbah Pillar because of ignorance or forgetfulness and the pilgrim comes to know about it only after doing the tawaf and sa‘i or after the 12th Dhul Hijja, then he has to redo the stoning if he is still in Mina or Mecca. However, if he has already left Mecca, then there is nothing on him.
Sacrifice in Mina
After stoning al-‘Uqbah Pillar, the pilgrim goes for the fifth of the obligatory rituals of hajj and that is the sacrifice. It is obligatory precaution not to do the sacrifice before the stoning. It is necessary for the pilgrim to do the sacrifice with the sincere intention by saying, for example, “I am making this sacrifice in fulfillment of hajj at-tamattu‘ for seeking pleasure of Almighty Allah.” Just the intention in one’s mind is sufficient; it is not necessary to say it verbally.
Halq or Taqsir
After stoning the ‘Uqbah Pillar and the sacrifice, the pilgrim moves on to the sixth of the obligatory rituals of hajj, and that is the shaving (halq) or cutting of the hair (taqsir). The pilgrim is allowed to do halq or taqsir before the sacrifice once he has the sacrificial animal in his possession at the slaughter-house. Similarly, it is acceptable if he does the halq or the taqsir before the stoning or the sacrifice out of ignorance or forgetfulness. In either case, the restrictions of ihram will not be lifted until after doing the sacrifice.
Rules of Halq or Taqsir
1. Sincere intention for seeking pleasure of Almighty Allah is one of the essential conditions for halq or taqsir. A pilgrim who wants to do halq may say, “I am doing halq for releasing myself from the ihram of hajj al-tamattu‘ to seek nearness of Almighty Allah.” A pilgrim who wants to do taqsir may do the niyyat as following: “I am doing taqsir for releasing myself from the ihram of hajj at-tamattu‘ to seek nearness of Almighty Allah.” As mentioned earlier, just the thought in one’s mind is sufficient; saying it verbally is not a requirement.
2. Women are not allowed to do halq; there should only do taqsir.
3. A male pilgrim has the choice between halq and taqsir if it is not his first hajj even though halq is better for him. But the one who is doing the hajj for the first time is required, based on obligatory precaution, to do halq.
4. A pilgrim who knows that the barber doing halq will hurt his head by a razor is not allowed to use razor, he should instead used a soft shaving machine.
5. Halq or taqsir must be done in Mina.
6. It is not necessary that the halq or taqsir be done during daytime; it can even be done on the eve of 11th Dhul Hijja.
7. As soon as the pilgrim does the halq or taqsir, all the prohibitions imposed on him by ihram are lifted except perfume and sexual relations as well as hunting. (The latter is based on obligatory precaution.)
8. Doing halq or taqsir before sacrifice is allowed if the sacrificial animals have already been bought and prepared in the slaughtering house (like Wadi Muhassar), and provided specific animals have been assigned to their relevant owners/pilgrims.
Consequently, doing tawaf of hajj, its salat, and sa‘i after the halq or taqsir should be permissible even though the sacrifice has not yet been done. However, the prohibitions of the ihram (with the exception of perfume and women) will be lifted only after doing the sacrifice.
Please note that you can delay the Tawaf of Hajj and its prayer, Sa'i , Tawaf Al-Nisa and its prayer untill completeing the Obligations of Mina "till the end of Thulhijja"
Tawaf of Hajj
After the pilgrim completes the rituals of Mina, he moves to Mecca (6 k.m. away from Mina) to fulfill the seventh of the obligations of hajj: that is, the tawaf of hajj. Sincere intention and seeking nearness of Allah is an essential condition for tawaf which may be said as follows: “I am doing the tawaf consisting of seven rounds for hajj at-tamattu‘ to seek nearness of Almighty Allah.” Just the thought in mind is sufficient, it is not necessary to say it verbally.
Salat of Tawaf of Hajj
After the tawaf, the pilgrim proceeds to fulfill the eighth of the obligations of hajj: that is, the salat of tawaf of hajj. Its intention must be combined with sincerity and with purpose of seeking pleasure of Allah. This may be say as follows: “I am saying two rak‘ats salat for tawaf of hajj at-tamattu‘ to seek nearness to Almighty Allah.” Niyyat does not have to be said verbally.
After the salat of tawaf, the pilgrim proceeds to the ninth of the obligations of hajj known as sa‘i. Its intention has to be with sincerity for seeking the pleasure of Allah. It can be done by saying, “I am doing sa‘i between Safa and Marwah seven rounds for hajj at-tamattu‘ to seek nearness of Almighty Allah.” The method and conditions of tawaf of hajj, its salat and the sa‘i are same as mentioned earlier under ‘umrah at-tamattu‘. It is recommended to do the tawaf of hajj and its salat on the Day of ‘Idd; however, it is permissible to delay it till the end of Dhul Hijja. It is important to note that after doing the tawaf of hajj, its salat and the sa‘i, the prohibition of using and smelling perfume will be lifted from the pilgrim. But the restrictions as far as sexual activities and hunting is concerned, based on obligatory precaution, those will still be in place.
Tawaf Al-Nisa and its Salat
After completing the sa‘i, the pilgrim proceeds to the tenth of the obligatory rituals of hajj known as tawafun nisa’. After that he goes on to fulfill the eleventh ritual known as salatu tawafin nisa’. Once the pilgrim has completed the sa‘i, he returns to the Sacred Mosque to do tawafun nisa’ with sincere intention which may be done in the following words: “I am circumambulating seven times around the Ka‘bah for tawafun nisa’ of hajj at-tamattu‘ to seek nearness to Almighty Allah.” Then the pilgrim proceeds to do salat of tawafun nisa’ behind the Maqam Ibrahim (a.s.) with sincere intention of seeking the pleasure of Allah which may be done by saying, “I am doing two rak‘ats of tawafun nisa’ for hajj at-tamattu‘ to seek nearness of Almighty Allah.” As mentioned earlier, the niyyat does not have to done verbally.
Spending the night in Mina
After having completed the salat of tawaf, the pilgrim now proceeds to the twelfth of the obligatory rituals of hajj known as mabit in Mina in the eves of 11th and 12th Dhil Hijja. “Mabit” means spending the night at a place. If the pilgrim goes to Mecca on the day of ‘Idd (i.e., 10th of Dhil Hijja), then it is mandatory for him to return to Mina to spend the night with the sincere intention by saying, for example: “I am spending the night in Mina for fulfillment of hajj at-tamattu‘ to seek pleasure of Almighty Allah.” There is no need to do the niyyat in verbal form.
Stoning the three pillars
Stoning the three pillars –the sughra, the wusta, and the ‘uqbah– is the last of the obligatory rituals of hajj. It is worth mentioning that the distance between the Sughra and the Wusta Pillars is 150 meters while between the Wusta and the ‘Uqbah Pillars it is 275 meters.
And by completing that the Hajj is over.
For more details please refer to the book of Hajj & 'Umrah Made Easy and Hajj Rituals on the website of IMAM ALI FOUNDATION LONDON